Pesticide resistance is a genetic modification in the population of target pest that makes it resistant to a pesticide. Pests develop pesticide resistance due to the natural selection. Pests possessing genes that increase the chances of their survival may pass on these genes to other generations.
Particularities of pesticide resistance
The resistant survivors possess novel behavioral features for pesticide avoidance. Their new biochemical features permit them to destroy pesticides. These pests pass on the pesticide resistance to their progeny. In the long run, the whole of pest population may develop pesticide resistance. Globally, more than 500 species of different pests have developed various forms of resistance to pesticides. Multiple pesticide resistance develops to several classes of pesticides. Cross pesticide resistance develops to one pesticide, but makes the pest resistant to other pesticides, particularly those that have the comparable mechanisms of action.
Causes of pesticide resistance
- Large progeny increases the likelihood of accidental mutations and the quick accumulation of resistant pests.
- Shorter living generations and numerous progeny develop pesticide resistance quicker.
- Exclusive application of pesticides increases selective development of pesticide resistance.
- Pesticides with slow degradation remain for a long time in the area of application and favor the selection of resistant individuals.
- Pest managers sometimes recur to increased use of pesticides that may contribute to pesticide resistance.
- Pesticides kill useful predators of pests and the probability of pesticide resistance increases.
Mechanisms of pesticide resistance development
Pests give rise to pesticide resistance owing to metabolic changes that guard them from poisons. Pests produce protective enzymes such as microsomal oxidases, esterases, and glutathione transferases. Mutations may embrace a single gene or multiple genes. Pesticide resistance may be inherited both in males and females. Behavioral pesticide resistance in the form of avoidance was described for some compounds. Pests may also increase the excretion rates of toxic substances and decrease toxin penetration through the body.
How to withstand pesticide resistance
- Saturation approach presupposes heavy use of pesticides to destroy absolutely all pests. This approach to pesticide resistance suppresses any detoxification and prevents reproduction.
- Another approach to pesticide resistance reduces pesticide pressure on the pests. It is good to avoid needless pesticide applications.
- Pesticide rotation presupposes using of pesticide classes with different actions to postpone the beginning of resistance or diminishing already developed condition.
- It is good to mix several pesticides with different types of action to better the individual pesticide results and delay the start of resistance.